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Call for Papers

by on September 19, 2016 · 0 comments

Dear Contributors,
the e-journal PHILOSOPHIA remains open to all the diversity of philosophy and to all philosophical topics and we further on are looking forward to contributions from all fields of philosophy and their problems.
We are also going to establish a section in every new issue devoted on a specific subject. Here is our call for papers plan for the upcoming issues!
Issue 14 / December 2016
Call for papers deadline: October 30th
Editors in charge: Tomas Jeschke, Evelina Miteva
Topic: “Norm and Nature”
Issue 15 / March 2017
Call for papers deadline: January 31, 2017
Editors in charge: Gergana Dineva, Evelina Miteva
Topic: “Fate and Freedom”
Issue 16 / July 2017
Call for papers deadline: April 30th
Editor in charge: Smilen Markov
Topic: “Place, Presence, Continuity”
Issue 17 / December 2017
Call for papers deadline: September 30th
Editors in charge: Nuria Sanchez Madrid, Ognian Kassabov
Topic:  “Kant’s Cosmopolitan Right: Readings and Aftermath”
We are looking forward!



I. Logic And Ontology

Bijaya Prasanna MahapatraLinguistic Relativism: A Gadamerian Understanding (PDF pp. 3-5)

Алекс КостоваКъсният Хайдегер и новото начало на философията: феноменологичният път (Цееринген, 1973 г.) (PDF стр. 11 – 41)

Timothy TambassiCategorie ontologiche, truthbearer e truthmaker. Il rapporto tra ontologia e verità nella proposta di E.J. Lowe (PDF pp. 42 – 52)

Himansu Sekhar SamalAnumāna as Analogical Reasoning. A Critical Analysis (PDF pp. 53 – 66)

II. History of Philosophy / Lectures 

Lars ReukeOn Spirits (PDF pp. 67 – 78)

Евелина МитеваАбстрактният човек е чудовищен: от Алберт Велики до Борхес и обратно (PDF стр. 79 – 94)

Ива МановаКръстьо Пейкич (1666‐1730) и традицията на религиозно‐полемичната литература (PDF стр. 95 – 106)




by on March 7, 2016 · 0 comments


Георги Каприев, Смилен Марков, Думи за въведение (PDF стр. 3-5)
История на философията


philosophy-journaLino BiancoThe Unity of Courage and Wisdom in Plato’s Protagoras

Georgi Kapriev Der Zusammenhang ‚Geschichte-Metaphysik’ als Drehpunkt der byzantinischen Philosophie

Моника ПанайотоваАвгустиновият възглед за душата и тялото

Simeon MladenovOn Anselm of Canterbury. Towards a new definition of human nature

Димитър ПетровСъзерцателното „време на мълчание“ и „състояние на мълчание“ на ума според Калист Катафигиот

Oseni Taiwo Afisi  Popper, Liberal-Communitarianism, Beyond the Politics of Liberalism

Мукаддес Налбант„Една дама” – първата жена-философ на Турция

Valentin VelchevCONTEMPLATIONS ON “THE GRAND DESIGN” (or, A Debate With Stephen Hawking in his Absence) (Part Two of Three)

Катерина ГеоргиеваИгра на захвърлени логоси. Харолд Пинтер „Семейни гласове”

Цветелин Ангелов Християнски философски рефлексии

In memoriam Jan A. Aertsen


Editorial, Philosophia 11

It was on the Monday after the Paris attentats that I walked into the seminar room to give a class to Philosophy students. We are giving the class together with a colleague of mine and it was his turn, so I sat at one of the student banks and prepared myself for some quality metaphysics time. To my surprise and admiration, contrary to my own and students’ expectation that the class would go as ‘normal’, i.e. as if nothing had happened that had to do with our class room, my colleague opened the seminar with a pair of questions. “What use can we have out of philosophy in the face of the Paris events?”, he asked the students. “Why do we need philosophy?”

Most of us who are engaged with philosophy are probably confronting personally those questions on dayly basis. In this issue one could find different answers to the question, various approaches and perspectives. What they have in common is not dealing with the Paris case ad litteram, but a conscious effort by their authors to promote a world of values, where religion is enlightening and not violent, a world that makes sense and is not meaningless.

Oseni Afisi goes into the structure of the society and the limits that liberalism, as in its classical Karl Popper form, imposes on it, as well as possible solutions for those limitations.

Mukaddes Nalbant tells the story of the first Turkish woman, Fatma Aliye, who dealt with philosophy in the beginning of the XXth century, in the turning time of Atatürk.

Katerina Georgieva looks at Harold Pinter and the tension between voice and its absence in his plays, trying to find the meaning of the unspoken.

Vesselin Velchev, in the second part of his detailed study, defends the creationist point of view from the point of view and with the argumnts of the science.

Tsvetelin Angelov offers an essay in the long epistolar tradition, from the view piont of a theologian discussing with a fellow philosopher who doubts about Christianiy and its basic ideas such as Trinity. Angelov compares then the divine trinity with the trinal structure of time (past-present-future) that is nonetheless one fenomenon.

Georgi Kapriev, after decades of studies on Byzantine thought, offers us here his answer to the way we should approach the “riddle” Byzantine phylosophy. He sees the key in the relation between history and metaphysics, i.e. between that which is unfolding in the history and its metaphysical background as cause and end. “The history is the epiphany of the metaphysical.”

We have a very detailed article by Dimitar Petrov on the mystical teaching of a very understudied Byzantine monch, Kallistos Kataphygiota.

Simeon Mladenov looks at the human nature from the perspective of Anselm of Canterbury in its tension between right(ful)ness (rectitudo) and the human will with its apparent tendency to evade the right.

Monika Panayotova studies the complex problem of the body and its connection to the immortal soul in Augustine.

Lino Bianco examines in detail the problem of virtues in Plato’s Protagoras, as well as the modern state of the debate. Can we have one virtue without having all the rest? Lino Bianco presents to the reader all the possible interpretations of the question.

The issue, in the end, commemorates the work of one of the great medieval scholars of the XXth century, Jan A. Aertsen, who left us in January 2016.


The Editorial Board wishes you a fruitful time with our new, 11th issue of our free Philosophia journal.




Valentin Velchev – CONTEMPLATIONS ON “THE GRAND DESIGN” (or, A Debate With Stephen Hawking in his Absence)

Babajide Dasaolu / Demilade Oyelakun – The concept of evil in Yoruba and Igbo thoughts: Some Comparisons

Светлана Камџијаш – Идејата за човечкото совршенство. Во филозофијата веданта и сродните концепти од западната философија како алатка за нејзино постигнување

Драган Јаковљевић – Путеви и изазови ревитализовања религиjа

Ристо Солунчев – Постмодернистичкото децентрирање на субјектот и православниот концепт на личноста

Димитър Петров – Евагрий Понтийски: „съзерцанието – единство с Единното“

Editorial Introduction to 10th Issue

We live in an open world. We are defined by terms like economical exchange, cultural exchange and, even, student exchange; the mobility of people has never been greater. And as people are moving from one culture to another, from one context to another, they inevitably stumble upon comparisons between the own and the new, between the known and that which has yet to be learned.

Our latest 10th issue of the online journal Philosophia is focusing on contexts and comparisons. The ability to impose our own values into a discussion of the different and the unknown is a hallmark of philosophy.

The article of Valentin Velchev (Bulgaria), A Debate With Stephen Hawking’s The Grand Design, puts religion in a dialogue with science. This is the first in a series of articles that are going to be published in the Philosophia journal. The author discusses the long undisputed methods of science, and builds his argument from a logical perspective, proposing that the so-called ‘belief’ in a Creator of the universe might actually be the more reasonable solution to the puzzle about the world’s beginning.

Another bold comparison is undertaken by Babajide Dasaolu and Demilade Oyelakun (Nigeria), The Concept of Evil in Yoruba and Igbo Thoughts: Some Comparisons. As the title suggests, the authors juxtapose the Western notion of evil – in its classical Christian meaning – with the understanding of evil in two different African theoretical frameworks. The authors assert that, despite some substantial internal differences between the African views on evil, they nevertheless share a common essential unlikeliness to the Western one: the Western Christian concept of evil remains a theoretical problem while the African view on evil is oriented practically. This view roots evil within human actions and, as such, its eradication requires a human deed.

Another comparison stretching through cultures is the one offered by Svetlana Kamdzijas (Macedonia), who discusses the notion of human perfection in a dialogue between the contemporary Western ethics and the Indian Vedanta view. In the tradition of Socrates and Plato, and then again of Bauman and Liotar, the author questions the expansive way of knowing thyself proposed throughout the history of Western philosophy, while confronting it with the Vedanta way of an inner-bound and centered way of self-exploration and self-perfection.

A similar approach is adopted by Dragan Jakovlevic (Montenegro) in his contribution Ways and Challenges Towards Revitalizing Religion. The study questions the rise of radical Islam in a globalizing world, with the Western, and more anthropological, approach to religion. After all, concludes the author, religion in general, as well as the Enlightenment, are projects that are still open.

The article of Risto Soluncev (Macedonia) is set entirely in the ‘Western’ context, but once again builds on the line of confronting the Christian orthodox view on human personality with a post-modern secular ethics. The author claims that the Orthodox concept of the person as engaged in a continuous relation to the divine could contribute to and enrich the post-modern view of the person as a being bound to freedom.

We close the issue of the journal on an Orthodox note with the article of Dimitar Petrov (Bulgaria/USA) Evagrius Pinticus: the Contemplation – “a unity with the Unity”. This is a rigorous study of the Byzantine author of IVth c. Evagrius Ponticus and his teaching of the union with the divine through purification of the soul and a mindful contemplation of the divine. Being, in a way, a ‘practical mystics’, this teaching can harken back to the contribution of Kamdzijas and its Eastern spirituality, or to the one of Dasaolu and Oyelakun in their practically oriented view on the human soul.

The comparisons and the confrontations of various approaches do not only celebrate diversity: They are a quest in the search for the Self, a quest that today more than ever goes through foreign lands and ideas.

Dr. Evelina Miteva
Thomas-Institute, University of Cologne

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Dimitar Petrov


In this study the theory and practice of contemplation is being examined in the trilogy of Evargius Ponticus Praktikos, Gnostikos and Kephalaia Gnostika. The main concept of Praktikos is that the spiritual practice aims to purify the soul, to develop the virtues and to set the condition of impassiveness, which shapes the mind for awareness. Different types of contemplations were adduced – upon material things, upon the intelligible from the created nature and upon transcendental realities – God, the Holy Trinity and the Unity, formulated in The Gnostikos and extended in Kephalaia Gnostika. I analyze the two main functions of the contemplation: elevating; raising the words and the truths in the hierarchy of knowledge and unifying them; uniting with the spiritual and the divine, with God, the Holy Trinity and the Unity. The article aims at illustrating what is the eternal spiritual importance of the theory and practice of contemplation in the mystical theology of Evargius Ponticus for the Hesychastic tradition and the Christian culture.

Keywords: contemplation, unity, knowledge, mystical theology, Hesychasm




Babajide Dasaolu &

Demilade Oyelakun


There is relatively little or no known cross-cultural critical comparison of perspectives on the concept and problem of evil in metaphysics literatures in African cultural philosophies. This article aims to attempt such theoretical exercise within the contexts of the Yoruba and Igbo metaphysical thoughts on the concept and existence of evil. This paper establishes that the meaning of the problem of evil as widely known in Western philosophy is not different from what obtains in Yoruba and Igbo thoughts. However, such lack of contrasting conceptual polemics does not translate in an absence of substantive differences in the metaphysical viewpoints on the actual existence of evil in Yoruba and Igbo cultural philosophies. Unlike in the Western philosophical tradition where the logical problem of evil is perennial, in both Yoruba and Igbo ontologies, such a logical problem of evil does not exist. The findings of the paper further show that while Yoruba ontology simply exonerates God from being responsible for evil on secular grounds, the understanding of evil in Igbo thought is complicatedly ambiguous, straddling between religion and secularism. In the light of the Yoruba and Igbo views on evil, the paper concludes that the devastating argument on the reality of evil, which has been largely taken as a necessary antithesis to the cogency of God’s existence, may after all deserve some rethinking.

Key words: Evil, Africa, Igbo, Yoruba, Cultural Philosophy.




 Драган Јаковљевић


Dieser Aufsatz behandelt die Frage nach der aktuellen Lage von Religionen im sog. post-säkuleren Zeitalter und im Rahmen von sich abzeichnenden Prozessen der Desäkularisierung. Unter der Brücksichtigung der Thesen von Peter Berger, Thomas Luckmann, sowie Hubert Knoblauch und Hermann Lübbe, erörtert der Verfasser die Besonderheiten und spezifische Funktionen von Religionen in modernen Gesellschaften. Hierbei werden die Differenzen zwischen islamischer und westlicher Kultur analysiert und eine soziologisch-kulturologische Erklärung für diese, sowie für die Herausforderungen die die „islamische Flut“ für Europa bringt, gesucht. Seine Analysen schliesst der Verfasser mit dem Hinweis auf die C.F.von Weizsäckers These ab, wonach sowohl die Religion als auch die Aufklärung eigentlich im Prinzip unvollendete Projekte darstellen!




Svetlana Kamdzijas

ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the opposed ideas about the hero in the ancient Occidental and Oriental cultures and considers them as directly related to their relevant philosophies. The course and the educational goals of these respective philosophies and cultures can be deduced from their opposite human tendencies in general: one focusing on the self and the other on the world. The focus of the Western cultures on the external makes the questions about ethical crisis unavoidable, as discussed by Z. Bauman, who defines the consequences of “total emancipation” as well as of replacing the “ethic with aesthetic” in his attempt to lay the foundations of a new “endemic ethics”, against the predominant mass ethics, based on the innermost in the human “self”. And the problem starts when we ask: what in fact do we identify with. This paper aims at proposing an answer to this question through the perspective of two comparable philosophies: that of Plato and that of the Vedanta school of Indian philosophy.

Key words: moral crisis, Eastern and Western culture, personality, true self, Vedanta




immanuel kant philosophy

Kant’s Philosophy

Oliver Laschet – The Law of Nations and the Problem of Supranational Coercion in Kant  (pp. 1-12. PDF)

Ясен Андреев – Практическият субект като обективна цел. Към екзистенциалния прочит на Кантовата практическа философия   (pp. 12-31. PDF)

Philosophy of literature

Antoaneta Dontcheva –  Waiting- Samuel Beckett`s enigmatic Sign of Life (pp. 32-43. PDF)

Philosophy and logics

Красимира Криворова – Смисъл и невъзможни светове в параконсистентната и релевантна логика (pp. 44-54. PDF)

Philosophy and semiotics

Зорница Каприева – Самоубийството като културен феномен (pp. 55-65. PDF)

History of Philosophy

Smilen Markov – What does Byzantine Philosophy have in common with Aristotle? (the case of Theodore Abū Qurrah) (pp. 66-79. PDF)

Димитър Чуровски – В търсене на нова парадигма за социалното развитие (pp. 80-97. PDF)

Александра Арабаджиева – По следите на философските идеи на Корнелиус Касториадис – отпечатъкът от детството и студентските години (pp. 98-115. PDF)


Георги Димитров – За другостта на европейския персонализъм и неговата криза през ХХ век (pp. 115-125. PDF)






Worldview approaches

Κατελής Βίγκλας – Η αναλογική σκέψη του Αθανάσιου Κίρχερ ως βάση σύνδεσης του Ολισμού με τον Νεοπλατωνισμό

Nikolay IvanovThe conception of belief in Gustav Fechner and William James (The unwritten chapter of “The Varieties of Religious Experience”)

Matteo Sione – Barthes et Nietzsche : une « pensée nomade »

Александър Лозев – Хóра е отговорът

Уолтър Трует Андерсън Четири различни начина да бъдем абсолютно прави (прев. от английски Силвия Борисова)

 Relational theories

Sotiris MitralexisRelational Ontologies in Dialogue: Christos Yannaras’ and Joseph Kaipayil’s Distinct “Relational Ontologies”

Кантен МеясуВреме без ставане (прев. от английски Петко Петков)


Петър НаковДилемата на евтаназията: моралното различие между активна и пасивна евтаназия

Manoranjan Mallick / Vikram S. Sirola  – Wittgenstein’s view on nonsensicality of ethics


Богдана ПаскалеваКъм въпроса за предмодерната естетика

Силвия БорисоваТрайност на красивото



 Sotiris Mitralexis

Christos-YannarasABSTRACT: Two thinkers with radically different backgrounds and no other connection to each other or information about each other, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy Dr. Christos Yannaras in Athens, Greece, and Professor of Philosophy Dr. Joseph Kaipayil in Bangalore, India, both articulate a ‘Critical Ontology’ and a ‘Relational Ontology’ with striking similarities as well as substantial differences; one of the most interesting aspects of this parallel philosophical production is the observation of both philosophers that a ‘relational ontology’ cannot but be a ‘critical ontology’, and vice versa. In this article I will attempt to briefly present the relevant theories of both philosophers and to highlight the common points and differing aspects that call for a direct dialogue between them.

Keywords: ontology, metaphysics, epistemology, relational, relationality, relationalism, critical, comparative, India, Greece, person, Christos Yannaras, Joseph Kaipayil

link Full Text   (EN)



Nikolay Ivanov

Gustav Fechner1. Introduction

One of the few issues which have rarely been researched by James’s scholars is the influence exerted by the famous scientist and philosopher Gustav Theodor Fechner over the pragmatist. Despite his opposition to ontological monism, and in spite of his harsh criticism of Elements of psychophysics, James had a deep respect for the panpsychist metaphysics of Fechner, dedicating it a long chapter in A Pluralistic Universe, as well as in some of his letters. In the later stage of his philosophical development, James even was moving towards an alternative version of panpsychism, calling it “pluralistic”. Fechner’s mystical theory which at some places appears even in the form of monism, based on the conception of the unity of the whole world enveloped by a universal soul, provokes James’s imagination until the end of his life.

Besides being a representative of natural sciences, Fechner was a very penetrating metaphysician who was increasingly interested in metaphysics due to his personal experiences. As Michael Heidelberger explains, there is an unjustified prejudice that Fechner was a purely metaphysical and eccentric conceptual poet who produced only untestable philosophical sayings

link Full Text   (EN)



Katelis S. Viglas 


Athanasius KircherDuring the period of the “Republic of Letters” in the 17th century as a result of geographical discoveries, Athanasius Kircher formed various theoretical and scientific views, of which three are presented here. First, he developed the theory of a dynamic geology, on the one side, regarding the Earth’s interior perceived as being full of tunnels leading to volcanoes, and on the other side, regarding the land surface as a product of divine intervention and the universal magnetism. Second, he held the ideal of the unity of the religions and nations of the world as a result of the Western historical-religious way of thinking. Third, he studied many unknown, ancient and contemporary languages, under a neo-platonic perspective, focusing on the decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphs and the creation of a universal language. The epistemological significance of the connection between Holism and Neo-Platonism was underlined by the introduction of a new symbolic order, which was based on an intelligible and to a great extent imaginary interpretation of reality. Because Kirher’s views echoed the holistic and neo-platonic conceptions of the Renaissance, he was expected to be forgotten during the Modern era. The emergence of the Scientific Revolution led to the abandonment of the analogical thought, in favor of the deterministic interpretation and the verification through experimental evidence.

Key words: Geography, Magnetism, Religion, Ethnology, Linguistics, Holism, Neo-Platonism, Hermeticism, Epistemology, Analogy

link Full Text   (GR)



Manoranjan Mallick

Vikram S. Sirola 

Ludwig WittgensteinThis paper makes an attempt to discuss why Wittgenstein considers ethical values as absolute in nature? Unlike the world which is nothing more than the concatenation of contingent facts, values (ethical, aesthetic, and religious) are non-accidental, unconditional and devoid of empirical content. They are transcendental in character. Hence the world is bereft of the ethical values. Values which are concerned with the factual aspects of the life and world are relative in nature and values which are to do with the moral aspects of the life and world are absolute in nature. This is based on the distinction made between facts and values i.e. the distinction between ‘how things are in the world’ and ‘what is their significance.’ The paper also analyses why ethics is viewed as supernatural and values are seen as lying beyond the world? It would make it clear Wittgenstein’s claim that ethics cannot be captured within the network of natural facts in the world, and hence, in language. And the very expression of ethical judgment of value leads to absurdity.

Key words: Wittgenstein, ethics, higher, absolute, supernatural, language, nonsense

link Full Text   (EN)



Barthes et Nietzsche : une « pensée nomade »

August 8, 2014

Matteo Sione Cette expression est tirée du célèbre essai « Pensée nomade » présenté par Gilles Deleuze au colloque sur Friedrich Nietzsche de Cerisy-la-Salle en 1972 (cf. « Introduction. L’enseignement de Nietzsche » pp. 1-4). Cf. Gilles Deleuze, « Pensée nomade », dans L’île déserte et autres textes 1953-1974, Paris, Minuit, 2002. I. Introduction L’enseignement de Nietzsche En juillet 1972, au Centre […]

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Philosophia: E-Journal of Philosophy and Culture – 6/2014 § 7/2014

March 7, 2014

.. 6 / 2014 E. J. Lowe (1950-2014) Timothy Tambassi – L’esistenza del reale Metafisica, sostanza e tempo nella proposta di E. J. Lowe Timothy Tambassi – Presentismo: in memoria di E. J. Lowe. Un ricordo bio-bibliografico 20th-century philosophy Nicole Note – The impossible possibility of environmental ethics, Emmanuel Levinas and the discrete Other Александър […]

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De l’authenticité des fragments (al-aqwāl) d’Ibn Bāğğa . (Avempace 1074-1139)

March 4, 2014

Jamal Rachak  Abstract: Ibn Bagga (1139) is the first Peripatetic philosopher in the Muslim West. His philosophical corpus adheres to the Aristotelian tradition, although some scholars point out the presence of some aspects of the emanation theory and Sufism in his philosophy. These assumptions take their cue from several fragments of Ibn Bagga (al- aqwāl, topic […]

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The impossible possibility of environmental ethics, Emmanuel Levinas and the discrete Other

March 4, 2014

Nicole Note Abstract: This article attempts to grasp the condition of so-called “impossible experiences” in nature. An impossible experience is an experience that cannot fully be thematized or perceived with the senses. Some authors consider such experiences key to an ethical response. Emmanuel Levinas’s insights will guide us to further explore this initiated path. The focus […]

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Wittgenstein, the antiphilsopher, and mathematics

March 2, 2014

 Alexandre Losev Abstract: Alain Badiou’s views on antiphilosophy and Wittgenstein as its representative figure are briefly considered. Special import is given to the role of mathematics discussed in such texts. Key Words: Wittgenstein, Badiou, mathematics link Full Text: (BG)

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