One of the few issues which have rarely been researched by James’s scholars is the influence exerted by the famous scientist and philosopher Gustav Theodor Fechner over the pragmatist. Despite his opposition to ontological monism, and in spite of his harsh criticism of Elements of psychophysics, James had a deep respect for the panpsychist metaphysics of Fechner, dedicating it a long chapter in A Pluralistic Universe, as well as in some of his letters. In the later stage of his philosophical development, James even was moving towards an alternative version of panpsychism, calling it “pluralistic”. Fechner’s mystical theory which at some places appears even in the form of monism, based on the conception of the unity of the whole world enveloped by a universal soul, provokes James’s imagination until the end of his life.
Besides being a representative of natural sciences, Fechner was a very penetrating metaphysician who was increasingly interested in metaphysics due to his personal experiences. As Michael Heidelberger explains, there is an unjustified prejudice that Fechner was a purely metaphysical and eccentric conceptual poet who produced only untestable philosophical sayings…
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During the period of the “Republic of Letters” in the 17th century as a result of geographical discoveries, Athanasius Kircher formed various theoretical and scientific views, of which three are presented here. First, he developed the theory of a dynamic geology, on the one side, regarding the Earth’s interior perceived as being full of tunnels leading to volcanoes, and on the other side, regarding the land surface as a product of divine intervention and the universal magnetism. Second, he held the ideal of the unity of the religions and nations of the world as a result of the Western historical-religious way of thinking. Third, he studied many unknown, ancient and contemporary languages, under a neo-platonic perspective, focusing on the decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphs and the creation of a universal language. The epistemological significance of the connection between Holism and Neo-Platonism was underlined by the introduction of a new symbolic order, which was based on an intelligible and to a great extent imaginary interpretation of reality. Because Kirher’s views echoed the holistic and neo-platonic conceptions of the Renaissance, he was expected to be forgotten during the Modern era. The emergence of the Scientific Revolution led to the abandonment of the analogical thought, in favor of the deterministic interpretation and the verification through experimental evidence.
Key words: Geography, Magnetism, Religion, Ethnology, Linguistics, Holism, Neo-Platonism, Hermeticism, Epistemology, Analogy
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This paper makes an attempt to discuss why Wittgenstein considers ethical values as absolute in nature? Unlike the world which is nothing more than the concatenation of contingent facts, values (ethical, aesthetic, and religious) are non-accidental, unconditional and devoid of empirical content. They are transcendental in character. Hence the world is bereft of the ethical values. Values which are concerned with the factual aspects of the life and world are relative in nature and values which are to do with the moral aspects of the life and world are absolute in nature. This is based on the distinction made between facts and values i.e. the distinction between ‘how things are in the world’ and ‘what is their significance.’ The paper also analyses why ethics is viewed as supernatural and values are seen as lying beyond the world? It would make it clear Wittgenstein’s claim that ethics cannot be captured within the network of natural facts in the world, and hence, in language. And the very expression of ethical judgment of value leads to absurdity.
Key words: Wittgenstein, ethics, higher, absolute, supernatural, language, nonsense
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Cette expression est tirée du célèbre essai « Pensée nomade » présenté par Gilles Deleuze au colloque sur Friedrich Nietzsche de Cerisy-la-Salle en 1972 (cf. « Introduction. L’enseignement de Nietzsche » pp. 1-4). Cf. Gilles Deleuze, « Pensée nomade », dans L’île déserte et autres textes 1953-1974, Paris, Minuit, 2002.
L’enseignement de Nietzsche
En juillet 1972, au Centre culturel de Cerisy-la-Salle, a eu lieu un colloque, dans le cadre de la philosophie française, consacré à l’œuvre de Friedrich Nietzsche. Le colloque a ouvert l’espace des nouvelles lectures critiques du philosophe allemand, en confrontant des commentaires exégétiques à des interprétations révolutionnaires et en se posant la question de l’actualité des intuitions, de la méthode et de la pratique philosophique nietzschéennes, comme grille de lecture du monde et de l’histoire contemporaine. La rencontre de Cerisy-la-Salle, intitulé « Nietzsche aujourd’hui ? », représente un événement fondamental pour la philosophie et la culture françaises puisqu’elle marque la naissance et la prolifération de nouveaux discours inspirés de Nietzsche, ou mieux « nietzschéens »…
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6 / 2014
E. J. Lowe (1950-2014)
Timothy Tambassi – L’esistenza del reale Metafisica, sostanza e tempo nella proposta di E. J. Lowe
Timothy Tambassi – Presentismo: in memoria di E. J. Lowe. Un ricordo bio-bibliografico
Nicole Note – The impossible possibility of environmental ethics, Emmanuel Levinas and the discrete Other
Александър Лозев – Витгенщайн, антифилософът, и математиката
Ханс Йонас – Защо модерната техника е предмет на етиката – превод от немски Ирина Георгиева
Марк Ришир – Смисълът на феноменологията във „Видимото и невидимото” – превод от френски Паула Анегелова
Нора Голешевска – Визуалните изследвания като социална критика и политическа теория. Джовани Сартори: визуална пайдея и видео политика
Георги Петков – ‘Референция за котка’ или персоналната идентичност като познавателен проблем
Мадлен Ангелова – Томлението като естетика насочена към субектното – едно своеобразно съзерцание на другия
7 / 2014
Jan Söffner – Brunos Asche. Philosophische Implikationen einer Hinrichtung
Jamal Rachak – De l’authenticité des fragments (al-aqwāl) d’Ibn Bāğğa . (Avempace 1074-1139)
Smilen Markov – The Epistemic structure as an animate statue – Psellos’ concept of Christian Philosophy
Iván Galán Hompanera – Faktizität und Fremderfahrung
Pablo Posada Varela – Suspension, déshumanisation, hyperbole (Husserl, Fink, Richir). Radicalisations de l’épochè et paliers de concrescence
Славой Жижек – Кризата на Запад е криза на демокрацията, колкото и на финансите – превод от английски Иван Дулов
Славой Жижек – Едно сърце, по-голямо от живота – превод от английски Иван Дулов
Интервю със Славой Жижек – от Иван Дулов
Philosophy of language
Gergana Apostolova – Names as identifiers and frontiers of the text: the individual capacity of renaming in changing cultural and language environment
Petar Dimkov – On Conceptual Schemes from Linguo-psycho-philosophical Point of View
Abstract: Ibn Bagga (1139) is the first Peripatetic philosopher in the Muslim West. His philosophical corpus adheres to the Aristotelian tradition, although some scholars point out the presence of some aspects of the emanation theory and Sufism in his philosophy. These assumptions take their cue from several fragments of Ibn Bagga (al- aqwāl, topic of this article) containing elements from the theory of emanation and other Neoplatonic ideas. The question was made very strong with the critical edition of all the fragments (13 fragments) carried out by Prof. Jamal Eddine Alaoui. As a result of his very thorough critical study of these fragments, Alaoui claims eventually that the fragments should not be attributed to Ibn Bagga, thus preserving the purity of the doctrine of the Aristotelianism of the teacher of Ibn Rushd.
This article aims at reconsidering the arguments of Alaoui (non-attribution to Ibn Bagga) and those of Fayyumi (attribution to Ibn Bagga) in order to arrive to a new conclusion which, on the one hand, supports the ‘wrong attribution’ hypothesis, and on the other hand highlights the fragments in which some of the ideas of Neoplatonism and the theory of emanation are found.
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Abstract: This article attempts to grasp the condition of so-called “impossible experiences” in nature. An impossible experience is an experience that cannot fully be thematized or perceived with the senses. Some authors consider such experiences key to an ethical response. Emmanuel Levinas’s insights will guide us to further explore this initiated path. The focus of analysis is not on his indiscrete Other because it is not possible to repeat the requisites of the ethical moment represented by the indiscrete Other’s face – a breaking up of totality and a teaching. Instead, we will take a novel approach and draw a parallel with the phenomenological conditions of his less explored but promising discrete Other. It seems to offer an alternative manner of breaking through totality, teaching us a different subject, namely the secrets of hospitality.
Keywords: Environmental ethics; impossible experience; Emmanuel Levinas; discrete other; teaching; break with totality.
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Abstract: Alain Badiou’s views on antiphilosophy and Wittgenstein as its representative figure are briefly considered. Special import is given to the role of mathematics discussed in such texts.
Key Words: Wittgenstein, Badiou, mathematics
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Abstract: This is the summary of a study of personal names as identifiers and frontiers of the text viewed as an individual world or individual set of worlds of the story-teller. The story embedding the names of its heroes and the names of places in particular is seen as a way out of the opacity of language. Names are investigated as clues. Our particular interest has been set upon the capacity of the individual story-teller or encoder to give names to the characters and places of a set of textual worlds. The initial hypothesis presupposed the frontiers of the encoder’s personality in the range of his or her capacity as story-teller where the story adopts a textual individuality and becomes an entity of meta-conceptual nature.
The Effect of the study came to specify the moment of transition in the mode of self-identification of the subject: in the translingual and transcultural codification of a story the names of the heroes and places become intransparent and the text loses its frontiers offering a set of replacements or avatars to the destrucutred identity of the story-teller. Babylon is the frontier of cultural transcendence which cannot be nominally neglected, and the incapacity to reach nominal equivalency of the Self leads to the impossibility to open the world in the individual Self-tale into the world-for the-Other. The study is based on the relations of the encoder and the story, the translator and the story, the decoder and the user of the story as a text, visual and emotional adaptation and game-reality, as well as the relations of the perception and Self-perception of the re-named text individual in over 6500 cases whose number has been growing day in and day out without disturbing the system of identification as a way out of the problems caused to the Self by the opacity of language.
Key words: personal names, story, encoder, decoder, text identity, transcultural setting, wordyworld, sets of worlds, Self-cognition, opacity of language.
Abstract: Dit artikel tracht de conditie van de zogeheten ‘onmogelijke ervaring’ in de natuur te vatten. Een onmogelijke ervaring kan noch volledig gethematiseerd noch met de zintuigen gevat worden. Desondanks is deze beleving voor sommige auteurs onmisbaar voor het tot stand komen van een ethische respons. Aan de hand van het gedachtegoed van de continentale filosoof Emmanuel Levinas willen we dit pad verder verkennen. Onze analyse is niet gericht op Levinas’ ‘indiscrete Ander’, aangezien onze fenomenologische verhouding tot de Ander niet dezelfde is als die ten opzichte van de natuur. Wel brengen we een parallel tot stand met de fenomenologische conditie van Levinas’ minder uitgewerkte ‘discrete ander’. Deze lijkt een alternatieve wijze van het doorbreken van de realiteit te suggereren, één die ons de subtiliteit van gastvrijheid communiceert.
Keywords: Natuur en ethiek, onmogelijke ervaring, Emmanuel Levinas, discrete ander, communicatie, doorbreken van de totaliteit.
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